Little would change. Vulcans do little to nothing in TNG. You see Spock and mabey an occasional Vulcan(They couldn't all be on Vulcan, they have colonies). 10,000 survivors makes little sense to me as they are a space faring civilization.
Vulcan may be a founding world of the Federation but there is not much there to write home about.
Wow, I'm finding a lot of subtle bashing on the new movie. Grow up, the new movie was awesome. New timeline TNG would probably go something along the lines of this.
-The Enterprise D would probably look a little more streamlined, perhaps a Galaxy with some Sovereign sleekness to it.
-Wesley Crusher wouldn't be the deus ex machina to fix all problems in the first movie, and may be written off all together since he was a stupid character from his inception.
-Troi would do something other than crash the Enterprise into something every time she gets temporary command.
-Wolf 359 would be an even bigger massacre since the Borg would be even more advanced, assuming they find future Borg tech from the remnants of the Narada as well as potential debris from the Borg Sphere that went back in time to First Contact, which still technically happened in both timelines.
-We'd actually get to see Yar get it on with Data. Also, Yar would take Wesleys spot on the bridge.
-Doctor Soong would design Data to resemble a Vulcan in honor and respect of them, given that they are now a rare race.
-The Federation would be at peace with the Romulans, not the Klingons.
-Worf would still be a Starfleet Cadet, and be even more p1ssed.
-John de Lancie would still play Q and openly talk about his time with alternate universe Picard and perhaps even take new Picard to meet Picard Prime.