1. All PvP occurs in instances. There is no open-pvp. Ground PvP is also available using the queue menu or by traveling to the system it is occurring in.
2. I cannot speak to this as I only leveled my Fed to 6 and then switched to KDF. PvP exp is almost all we have.
3. KDF have a repeatable 'repel so and so invaders' the 'so and so' changes as you level. I'm in T3 and it has changed from Feds to Romulans. My experience with leveling is that the only reason to do those repeatable missions over pvp is if the queue is taking a long time. Which is rare for Klingons. The consensus is PvP is the most efficient way to level by far.
Commander 5 Fed and Lt. Commander 5 Klingon here...
2) Leveling in PvE with my Fed is very fast in comparison to leveling via PvP with my Klingon. At least it seems to be. The missions are always fairly easy so I tend to breeze through them, and I can get to a new tier in a short period of time, whereas the KDF seems to take much longer. (not that I mind necessarily... I feel like I level with my Fed in PvE way too quickly)
3) There are repeatable explore missions for the KDF but thus far they have been a joke. Unless I'm taking on 6+ ships at a time (which only ever happens if I attack two groups or more at once) I don't really need to use any BOFF abilities or even cloak. It's really quite boring. I can't speak to higher levels, of course, but I don't really bother with the explore missions without having absolutely nothing else to do, which is rare.
PvP experience used to be much faster, now it's probably about the same as PvE, depending on queueing time. Of course, there's no loot, but you get medals at a fair rate, so that's pretty much a wash as well.
Klingons have a few 'PvE' missions which are just like the Deep Space Encounters on the Fed side.
1) I would just like a overview of what kind of pvp is available and how it's going so far. I know you can use the que for space instance BGs....are there open pvp areas and how about ground pvp?
Most PvP is available through the queue system. They are one-off scenarios that have no impact on the game world.
There is, I think, 1 "open PvP" area. Borg Hunt? I'm not sure where to access it from anymore, or even if it's still open. As I recall, it was less rewarding than regular PvP and has some bugs/issues.
There used to be an "open PvP" ground combat zone in the system Ohta in the Neutral Zone. It didn't work right and the devs shut it down in beta.
2) How is pvp exp -vs- pve exp?
Scenario PvP experience is good. I suspect it's faster than PvE but I'm not positive.
As I recall, you get nothing for PvPing in an open PvP area, though. There is a PvE quest you can complete in there for XP, if it works.
3) I've been wanting to make a KDF toon. Do they have atleast repeatable explore missions they can supliment for some exp? Or is pvp the ONLY way for them to level?
There are repeatable "kill" missions. It's literally just a space zone with a couple dozen Federation ships floating around and you....kill them.
You have to understand that this game's PvP content is pretty much as big of a rush job as you'll ever see. It's not well designed or well implemented and the Klingon content is buggy. PvP in general is pretty shallow.
Not to try and turn you off to it, but just trying to set realistic expectations. If you want to shoot some enemy players/ships, you can, but there's very little "game" to it.