I know that planet. Even with bloom off, it's very bright to the point of painful. But I have eyes that are very sensitive to light, my nightvision is excellent. And no turning down gamma isn't an option, as this one planet and one ground explore map are the only two that are overly bright.
I've seen them as well. Just report it to Cryptic as a graphic bug. I typically put in the describe the problem box something along the lines of "AHHHHHH! MY EYES!! IT BURNS!!!" followed by a very calm explanation of, "hey, i'm flying into a sun. wasn't aware that i could explore the surface of the sun. Sweet."
I've also had this problem a few times. It has to do with the flare settings when the Genesis program creates a planet. I know I've reported it at least twice but this is the only ticket number I've found in my vast list.