While I understand the idea, since some ST species are higly spiritual, such a place would fail IMO. The DS9 temple is dedicated to the Prophet, and nothing else. But nothing else. There is (probably) thousand of beliefs in the galaxy. A single place for all of them would be useless, as some may require peace, others noises, some a lot of people, some being alone... For example the Vulcan like being alone to meditate, but it's not true for every species.
It would be like trying to make a temple for every cult on Earth, it's a good idea, but impossible to do.
No. In Star Trek, religous people are always barbarian and primitive. Here you don't need gods so that your little mind can stay afloat. You born, you die, with no reason and have to be happy with that. It's supposed to work. Enjoy the 25th century.