Not quite right. It's actually: <Net inflicted damage> (<Adjusted Base damage>). The <Adjusted Base Damage> the number inside of the parenthesis) is the amount of damage you would do to a target w/o any other modifiers. It's all of your skills, damage buffs, weapon power etc. Things are are known regardless of what the target is or the state of the target.
<Net Inflicted Damage> is the actual amount of hull damage (or health in ground) you inflicted on the target. It consists of the <Adjusted Base Damage> and all of the other modifiers (Crit Chance and Crit Severity), defenses (Shield bleed through or facing down, hull damage resistance, etc) and debuffs (hull Damage resistance debuffs, etc.) on the target that aren't resolved until an actual target is known and is hit.
[Combat (Self)] Your Thalaron Pulse deals 81524 actual buffed and modified damage and (40443 theoretical pre-buff and modifier) Radiation Damage to I.S.S. Stadi.
Not quite the 40443 damage was the base Thalaron Pulse plus your Aux Power level setting, your applicable captain skills, applicable ship consoles, Attack Pattern Alpha, etc. It's anything which directly buffs the amount of damage of the weapon. It's the amount of damage the weapon would do do an target that doesn't have any shields, buffs or debuffs.
The 81524 is the amount of real damage your base base adjusted 40443 damage did to the target. It includes any reduced due to shields, hull damage resistance, damage resistance debuffs (Attack Pattern Beta or Fire on My Mark) and if you Crited or not. All of those modifier are not know until your actually hit a specific target.
It looks like your hit a shield facing that was down and the Stadi has a huge stack of damage resistance debuffs on him (over -100%). Ouch is all I have to say. Imagined if you had Crit'ed.