This is part of the Cernan System Patrol, where we're tasked with scanning ship wreckages.
What appears to be the issue is that one of the wreckages (five total, first scan adds a new mission objective of scanning four more) appears as an "anomaly", even though a tricorder scan of the area shows no unusual objects in the area.
Getting close to this "anomaly" gives us an option of scanning a wreckage, but doing so does not update the quest, making it impossible to complete.
Tried reloading the instance several times (beaming back up to ship, entering the system again) and the same problem occurs.
Surprisingly enough, on my third attempt reloading the instance, I was able to complete the mission. There were five wreckages, but also there were two "anomalies" that could be scanned and not yield anything (tricorder scan of the area still resulted in 0 unusual objects).