I've gotten the same Fatal Error during Exploration missions (Delta Volanis, Arucanis Arm, etc.), and nowhere else. I haven't been able to do one of these missions since Open Beta started.
After this crash, the game verifies all files. After verifying files, it ALWAYS says "Error 14: The connection to the server was lost." I don't know what that means, but I'm guessing it's not good. If there were any corrupt files, it may not have been able to download and repair/replace them, but no matter how many times I Verify Files, it always give me Error 14.