I wanted to throw this out there for new fed players. I know not everyone will see this, but maybe this will help a few new players and they can guide others here.
Like Sun Tzu said, you start by knowing your enemy and knowing yourself.
Your enemy are ships that can remain hidden until they fire. They have two frontal weapons and one rear, they will typically have a narrow beam cannon in front which is high dps in a very narrow cone, and a torpedo launcher with a disruptor turret in the single rear weapon slot.
Many of them will be piloted by tactical officers, who will be using self buffs that give them bonuses to maneuver and damage.
Typically when attacking they will have their weapon energy all the way up, and often their second highest energy level will be aux, to improve turning radius.
Their available powers will vary, but they will often have high yield torpedos, polarized hull and jam sensors or tachyon beam. They can only have 3 bridge officer powers but those are universal and can be any role.
Their ships have less hull than federation ships, but are considerably more nimble. Not necessarily faster, but a much better turning radius.
Their tactical goal is going to be to separate your forces and defeat you 2-3 on one as quickly as possible.
The UFP ships are heavier, slower turning, larger hull and have an additional bridge officer position.
By default, they have a forward 250 degree arc beam, and torpedo launcher, and a rear 250 degree arc beam.
Strategic notes :
Because of their narrow firing cone, klingons cannot fire if you are above or below them, so if you are close to a KDF, fly directly into them, and they can't fire their main weapons at you.
Your ships start out with beam weapons, which are very wide arc and have better performance at maximum range. However, at maximum range, the klingon narrow cone weapons are much easier to remain on target. In a turning fight, the klingons have to do the most work to keep a target in range.
UFP ships can fire both weapons on the same target so long as it is within the 20 degree arc surrounding the midsection of the ship. Strive to keep your enemy in this area, while avoiding their frontal cone.
General tactical advice :
Group up. With a group you can see your teammate's health.
Take skills that emphasize an attritive fight and offer synergies. Engineering team I not only repairs hull, but applies a resistance buff and buffs energy levels, and can be applied by more than one teammate.
Beam overcharge is not as useful as it appears. It drops your weapon power to zero which will bring your dps with energy weapons to almost nothing.
Mines are extraordinarily useful for the defensive fight. They do the same damage fractions as torpedos, being kinetic damage and will severely harm enemies without shields.
Tractor beam is probably your most useful defensive ability. A kdf that cannot maneuver, cannot harm you. This also prevents them from turning to avoid shield penetration.
Choose a target caller, and everyone clicks on him. when he fires, everyone fires and you will automaticaly assist the target. KDF who get fedballed die real fast.
You may find that mines can be nearly as useful as torpedos in some cases. When in a turning fight, they are MUCH more useful than torpedos, because in a turning fight, you're keeping your side to the enemy.
Winning the fight :
Get all your people grouped up as quickly as possible, or better, group up before you go into the matches.
Get together and stay together. Don't straggle.
Be quick about dropping engineering team on teammates who are getting focus fired, and focus fire.
To win a given encounter, all you generally have to do is prevent the kdf from killing their focus fired target. If possible, bait them into attacking an engineer, who will probably have RSF. If you can kill the first kdf before they kill their target, they will be in trouble.
Finally, preparation. Get the best weapon and shield you can find. Don't go into pvp with tier I whites and expect to do well. Train up your bridge officers. Spend your skill points on things that make sense.
Select the point that you intend to defend with care. Obstacles can be helpful and harmful. They are very useful for breaking line of sight, but that goes both ways.
Stay close and tight. At t1, there are no ae effects to avoid. If you drift from the center, you will attract enemies who are returning from being killed that will snipe you.