My guess is that either klingons have crappy skills (ie ones that don't buff their abilities like APA and go down fighting) or you didn't train them. Don't know myself as I don't have a klingon, but those numbers you posted on fed require all 3 of the modifying skills to be max.
theres really no sense in me posting the builds of both my chars... my klingon char has every single skill (with exception of a few t5 skills which my fed dosnt have either) that could/should effect these abilities.
Infact I see the problem now.... the main skill that effects the dmg has not been converted correctly into klingon... attributes that modify blahblah "Escort captain" "Heavy Escort Captain" "Tactical Team Leader" Only one of these skills are availible to klingon.. it would seem our little buddies over at cryptic forgot to rewrite the code of those skills to fit the klingon skills.
In anycase a major flaw.
This causes problem in pretty much every single tactical ability with the exception of Tac team.
the problem is klingons escort line skills do not buff the attack pattern skills like 'heavy escort captain' & 'tactical escort captain'
Correct escort captain skills increase the duration and strength of the above listed buffs, the equivalent skills on the kilingon captain tree do not buff the skills. I sent a ticket / bug report on it over a week ago, devs dont care about klingons tbh.