So I been watching ST Voyagers and DS9 back to back and the shields in DS9 appears non existent while the one in Voyager was there all the way up until they contacted the federation then it became non existent too. They use to have a bubble graphic around it but later one they didn't even though the shields was still clearly in use.
Now we look at STO and our shields does not have a bubble graphic everytime we get hit but we seem to have some sort of shielding on our ships. Is it new federation tech developed during the war with the dominon or budget constraint?
Budget constraint. Apparently at the time, from what I understand, rendering shield effects on every individual ship in some of the massive battle scenes in DS9 would've been too expensive. Other than that, shields have been a pretty standard technology since the 23rd century.
A starship's shields are a highly charged energy bubble designed to protect the ship from varying energies, as long as those energies are known and inputted into the shield matrix database to allow a better defence for short peroids of time.
Less advanced energy weapons, like lower wattage lasers, are generally unable to damage the more advanced shield grids of the more advanced star ships in use, like Federation star ships for example, while more advanced energy weapons of a higher power level - like disruptors, poloron and phasers for example - stand a higher chance of being able to damage the shields and hit through to the hull depending on the amount of damage sustained to the shields and the ship at that time.
Or depending on the technological level of the attacker as well as the intensity of the attack.
Also if the ship is caught in a barrage of energy weapon strikes then the shields won't hold for very long, especially if the energy weapons are all of varying power settings at the same time.
That would be a low level tech term for it anyway.
I found it really interesting that in the original series films, from about III onwards, they pretty much abandoned ship phasers and stuck with torpedoes. They seemed top be trying to make the starships more akin to submarines.
IN The Undiscovered Country if I recall correctly, you don't see any bubbles but you see the progressive effect of torpedoes "pounding" a hull as the shields weaken. The first hits leave carbon scorch marks on the hull, the next lot actually impact on the hull and breach it before the last one actually compromises the hull and rupturs through the saucers section.