The feds have no raider size class of vessels. though it has been said the Aquariuos is close.
This is not to say that the feds do not have vessel that can be used like a raider.
The Defiant is a better decloaker/Alpha Striker.
The Aquariuos, thanks to its 2 Universal BOff slots, can be set-up to do the same.
The MVAM with its LTC Science BOff can be set up to mimic the SciBop in layout and effectivness.
Tactical surprise attacking and buffing, tactical plus science surprise attacking and debuffing. These are the mainly used roles of the BoP and the feds have the vessels to do the same and often better.
Yeah, that's another thing I forgot to mention. The Federation faction has escorts that can generally do everything that the BoPs can do, but better. Possible exception is the MVAE, because it doesn't have the EBC and doesn't have quite as many sci boffslot options. It still works quite well.