Marquis Raiders and Peregine Fighters use the SAME design. The raiders are varied though, some same as the Peregine Fighters, some as big as runabouts. And then there's Chakotay's ship.
About raiders taking on Galor and winning. That was ONE instance and it was a SWARM, not a single, not a small group, but MANY raiders ganging up on one Galor.
Not exactly. As far as I'm aware, there are only three instances where you actually see a Maquis ship on-screen. One is the DS9 episode where we see Sisko take three danubes against two Peregrines, the second is Chakotay's ship from the first eps of Voyager, and the third is Sisko catching up to, and capturing, Edington (you see two ships identical to Chakotay's raider, one of which gets slagged by the Defiant). The rest of the time they're described sensor contacts that vary in detail from Peregrines to more ambiguous "raiders".
I do not believe there was ever a non-fighter version of the Peregrine.