Others posted about communications. Again, Well Said, Sir or Madam. We had a saying when I was in the Cav - 'No commo equals no combat.' And no, I am most definitely not speaking about TS, Vent or the Chat Window here. Good communication about with newer players about any STF occurs prior to the Engage button being pushed. Not during the mission and most certainly not after they've made a rookie mistake (Either actual or just in the eye of the beholder). It is also not expressed in negative or disparaging terms.
Good communication on the part of the New Guy does not mean their eyes should be glued to the Chat window either. They'll miss the Sphere which is about to hammer them flat. Ooops. During the STF, watch what the other players are doing. Do not try to be the Hero. Heroes only get the rest of the team killed off. After watching, try to make what you're doing help what the team is doing. If they stopped firing on a target or they are moving away from Donatra's Scimitar, there's a reason for it. Follow their lead here. After the STF is over then you can ask why they did things the way they did. And what they did may not follow 'Conventional Wisdom'. My Fleet tries for the 10% Rule but we're not zealots about it. There are other ways to score the Optional.
When I first started playing STFs, I tried to use the 'wingman' concept. I would pick another ship or player and follow them. When they shot, I shot at the same target. When they moved, I moved to cover them so if they were engaging something I had little chance of doing any damage to, they didn't have to watch their backs. I would heal someone if I got the chance. Even if it appeared they didn't need it. And if someone got abusive or rude, I bugged out. Not going to change their opinion of me anyways. The Leaver Penalty was, and still is, worth it to avoid someone unpleasant. They are not going to stop being unpleasant or rude or abusive. There are zero consequences for their bad manners. So why should anyone put up with someone else calling them names?
I mentor newer players for my fleet. We chalk talk the mission prior to ever going in and I try to make sure they understand how things should be done and ought to proceed. This is how I was brought along when I first started playing STO and I've yet to see any reason not to continue doing things this way. No plan survives contact with the Enemy however. Part of being a good mentor is expecting people to make mistakes and then patiently explaining, again if need be, how to correct the mistake. I suppose we'll just have to wait until next time to score the Optional. Oh well. Guess what? This works! Further, it allows the newer players to enjoy the game as much as us old sweats do. It also means the young 'uns are far less likely to do something incorrectly and lower the success chances of the group.
@Sollvax: I wonder if you could please let me take a look at those codes you spoke of. Looks like an excellent idea and I'm always up for seeing how someone else does it right. Either PM me here please or visit the Team Judge website. Thank you in advance for your time and attention.