Afraid not. I chose Romulan passives that had no effect on hull, and same for Omega. I took each piece off just now, and PA disappeared when I removed the deflector, so it's definitely that. Still, no text on what PA is. Another fleetmate with the exact same deflector reports the same for his ship. At least it's narrowed down now, just wish somebody in-the-know would elaborate on this for us.
Weird, I dunno, if it's the deflector, I got no clue what else it could be at this point .
Since you have pinned down that the ability is attached to the deflector, i would assume that the particle accelerator is what reduces the cool on science abilities. Plus considering that "particle generators" enhances the damage of certain science abilities, "particle accelerator" would enhance the speed... so yeah, that would be my guess.