The Battle of Procyon V is part of the changes that happened to Daniels' timeline because of the Xindi arc. So it probably did happen.
Unlikely given the following details:
The Delphic Expanse took 1000 years or more to form ("Chosen Realm").
At the time of Enterprise it was 2,000 light years in diameter.
It was destroyed at the end of the show's 3rd season.
The Battle of Procyon V was fought inside an Expanse that was 50,000 light years in diameter ("Azati Prime").
Given that the anomalies interacted with each other and thus accelerated the process they might have created an expanse that big by the Battle of Procyon V in the 26th century. Otherwise it is simply impossible even if they'd started over right after the events of "Enterprise's" 3rd season.
That was precisely the point of the entire Xindi arc: the Sphere Builders were aware of that they'd lose that battle and told the Xindi to blow up earth.
Had they not done that earth and the Federation would have been oblivious to what was going on and the battle would have taken place.
The way the Sphere Builders handled it, the entire matter totally backfired.
Also Starfleet would at that point have been aware of this process to transform space and would have curtailed any further atttempts.