I'm trying to decide what you're asking for, exactly.
If you're asking for recommendations on Bridge Officer skills to enhance beam damage, I'd suggest that you focus on torpedoes for now. Both of the beam skills (Beam Overload and Fire At Will) are not as effective as they were intended to be, and are being addressed by the devs at the moment.
If you're asking what Captain skills to put points into in order to improve beam weapons, there is one labelled "Beam Weapons" which will improve them.
I wouldn't suggest putting too much effort into cannons, unless you plan on using turrets a great deal, since you cannot use dual or dual heavy turrets on a cruiser.