They will have no effect until you train the efficiency skils to at least one point at commander level. Until then, Efficiency as a whole is just a pretty word in your traits list. They do all add to the trait once you have at least one point trained. No, it's not a linear progression (you don't get 5 pts to all your ship energies/BO or 10 pts for you, you get skill ranks or a percentage increase on the skill, not sure which, I think someone had a thread around about it)
Also, the lower your power levels the higher the boost will be. For example, I have 4 bo's all with efficiency, my efficient skills all maxxed out an 9, and Efficiency myself as well as the efficient impulse drive. When I am at 25 minimal power setting, that power setting is boosted up to 58. The higher I raise the power level, the less Efficiency becomes effective. From my understanding, not that I agree with it, is that this skill is meant to aid in low power settings while others are set higher.
As others said, you won't see it's effects until you are able to put at least 1 point in the efficiency, tier 3, ship maintenance skills and have those BO's in station. You also won't see its effects in Sector Space.
The highest + I personally get with my bo's is +3, but that is also due in part to my efficiency skill as well as my efficient impulse and my maxxed out efficient skills. I assume that I would see a bigger + from them if I did not have any of those other things boosting my power settings.
Efficient not working without points in the Efficiency skills was fixed in the first patch to come out after release. Does no one read patch notes?
Well, I suppose to be precise the notes say that, they could be wrong on the matter.
The patch notes seem to be wrong, or the fix was misunderstood. I think they will now give a boost with the level 1 training skills, but considering how little they add, a % boost to them doesn't really make much of an impact. I only really noticed the increase with the commander level skills, and just one point in each provided a jump in power settings, so thinking not all that fixed.