I have been playing the game for a month after an absence of 5 months more or less. Please bare with me i will try to be brief and to the point. I am a fed who likes PvP and believe me i have done anything humanly possible to make my ship better for pvp but still feds keep losing badly. I agree that klings have more experince but there are issues that dont have to do with experience but with balance..
Sorry, but the only real imbalances are when one team is more tactically coordinated than the other, and to a lesser extent, people's choices of gear and/or BOff abilities <--- and even poor choices there can be overcome by a decent team. I do pvp on both fed and Klink side, space and ground. I've won with "common" gear, but been killed despite being armed with all blues. If you work well as a team (pre-made or PUG) and focus fire on the softest targets, chances are you will maintain the advantage. If you break off from the group and try to solo, break cover, or don't regroup after an initial loss, then you will most likely be beaten by your opposition.
Is it logical for a science officer to have acces to a ship like a BOP with dual cannons mounted an universal officer slots?
When you are a science officer in a military belonging to a warrior race, who's primary goal to seek out and fight enemies, and conquer and claim new territory for your empire? Ummm...yes. The Klingon Empire isn't anything like the Federation. It's about battle, glory and slaying your enemies.
You ask for advice but don't want to hear the advice that works (teamwork and counters) in other threads I have discussed this issue and improved other players experience in PvP. As an avid PvPer for both Klingon and Federation will varying ship and classes I feel I have a pretty good understanding of it.
You appear to be a cruiser captain. So are you a "tank" or dpser? A tank is the ship that can take the beating of 3 ships easily. My cruiser captain is a tank as she can handle almost all 5 attacking her. She is engineer matched with cruiser. I have a DPS cruiser with a Tac captain and even with the retro phasers she deals good damage.
Most people don't understand the kill order and chase wounded prey separating them from the healers. Escorts are squishy and high DPS of course they are the number 1 target. Science ships second and then cruisers. Almost every klink learns this by the time they reach LtC. Feds need to kill BoPs first and everytime they appear. Even with that cruiser at 5% health the BoP can cause you to not kill the cruiser and end up dead yourself.
Carrier spawns are easy to kill but we hardly ever attack them thinking if we kill the carrier the spawns go away. That is great if you can kill the carrier fast. Otherwise use AoE skills to take out the spawns. GW is great as is TBR. BFW and CSV with a DEM will increase your killing power to spawns.
The biggest thing with PvP is it is not a 1v1 showdown and most ships can't win when they are down 2v1 so how could they 5v1? You are probably going to die in the match but running right back into the fight at full impulse and 0 energy transfer time is a suicide run.
Build your ship to a function (tank, dps, cc or heals) and play that role as best you can. You will find that loosing can still be educational and even fun. While finding a good co-op team will usually bring victory a good % of the time.
A key element in the capture and holds is that the fights get pulled away from the POIs thus losing the points to a stable non combative ship.
Klingons usually have a capture team and a combat team while Feds run around like lost children trying to fight not capture. They don't often team thus losing coordination abilities.