This started happening yesterday for me. I tried to download the Star Trek Online.exe that was posted earlier on this thread, but it didn't help.
My traceroute looks clean, 19 hops to patchserver.crypticstudios.com, no timeouts.
I even connected to my neighbor's wifi, who has a different ISP, and got the same error.
Had the same deal today , but the Star Trek Online.exe worked for me .
I read your post before useing it , and I've downloaded the file to my desktop and just double clicked it .
Win XP asked if I wanted to run the file , and after I said yes it spawned a folder and another icon and launched the game unsername/password thing .
I had this same error, i got it twice in a row so i decied to look on the forums to see if others were having the same problem, i continued to try and load the launcher in the background while i browsed the forums, after about the 5th attempt it connected and loaded up fine with out a hint that something was wrong, during the time i was waiting i also stopped my Steam client from doing any updates to games in the background, i cant see this being a bandwidth issue but i thought i would let everyone know what i did while i was getting this to work,