I have encountered all space glitches, one more is a big black round shaped area from far (A big hole?) and the planet gradually appears from its center and starts growing till it fills the hole completely as I approach it.
I have this happening intermittently. My display adapter is an Nvidia GeForce GTS 250. There needs to be a non-black background, so something like a coloured nebula, in which case the planet looks like black space with stars in it. As noted earlier, the planet "fills in" the black space as I approach it.
I usually see it happening during missions to explore random systems in star clusters, rather than on patrol or during a Featured Episode.