The Biochemical Investigations chains are all "Personal" assignments (they might show up at Department Head/ship interior contacts, not sure), so your current location shouldn't matter.**
Gaming Proficiency, AFAIK, is only available from your Operations officer (Department Head or ship interior), but location shouldn't matter on that either.**
Facility 4028 Fugitives seems to only appear in Federation (Sirius, Regulus, Pi Canis) and Klingon (Eta Eridani and Omega Leonis) space + exploration clusters.
** - I say shouldn't on these because the way the system is currently bugged, the Department Head assignments don't match the ship interior assignments. There may be additional bugs affecting where these show up, too, but logically they should not be dependent on location.