I've tracked down the issue at hand. It stems from not all Bridge Officers sharing the same defining config files.
So, while these projects are set up to accept generic Boffs of the associated types, those Boffs are only currently obtained thru receiving a "Failure" outcome on Duty Officer assignments that recruit that species of Boff. The ones purchased at stores, or received from mission completion, are different config files, even though they share the same Display names. Therefore they cannot be used for these projects at this time.
We'll be updating the Projects to accept a wider range of Bridge Officers (hopefully encompassing all possibilities), and should have that fix in next week's patch.