Failing a mission is allready done in some EP, take a look where you talk to the bartender in the devidean mission, you only have one right answer other two are wrong if you pick the wrong one you can start over, Thats where Q snaps his fingers haha.
But if you look at the 2800 mission if you choose the wrong answer they won't help you but on this mission I would love the system where someone know his way with an rival he get's it from the dead officer, when clicking on the door that's stuck there should be something where you can convince the delicates to help you prying the door open.
Also for the wounded soldier lying there every officer know how to handle a medkit it's standard starfleet training and I do believe KDF will train there officers the same way.
It's just a part what you can put in and what not but I do not believe that it can be done.
If it's only a tool to learn players working in a team and later on use it in a team but then not with NPC's but with real people.
We all know cryptic has the tools to make it happen it's only when they want and how they wanted.But what I sugested before the system also could become handy in stf's when one or two leaves in ground battle you can summon a BOFF to take his place so you can finish the job if you know what I talk about here.
It's what I believe a much better tool then a kick system witch will be certanly mis used time after time.
Also players who don't want to be in a fleet or play on a team it's a solution.
That guy want to play alone well let him finish the STF with his crew, also if you can make a system where your BOFF's can fly one off your alt ships you can also do the STF space missions.
It might be a dificult build but on the other hand, they reach also towards players who love to do SP missions in other words more money for cryptic and PWE.
Many moons ago, I suggested an alternative approach to away missions since some people hate ground combat. Basically, whenever you end up in an area that required an away team, you could send your first officer with a team down to the planet to take care of it while you deal with things in space. OR you could beam down and leave the first officer in charge of the space stuff. Giving players the option of ground or space combat. Of course some missions would require ground or space interaction, but most would be open to either way depending on the player.
This suggestion could be integrated into the OP's suggestion in that the mission could be failed, completed or criticaled (?) depending on which bridge officers are assigned to the away team or bridge crew. Perhaps it's a medical type quest, so you'd need to send down a medical crew. Perhaps it's a combat type so you'd have to send down a tactical crew. Or it could be an engineering assistance quest so you'd have to send down engineers.
Of course, you'd have to denote which branch of the career field the bridge crew would be in. Making note of science bridge officers being either science related or medical related, tactical officers being security or command, etc.