Thats all in the chart you linked . The circles witht he arrows pointing left is how many rear weapon slots it has, and the arrors pointing right are the front weapon slots. Some weapons like dual heavy cannons can be restricted by class, like escorts only.
The red, yellow, blue show you how many officer slots each **** gets, and the dots below them shows the rank of abilities that officer can use
lol. that censored part should say ship. Dont know why i typed that
I was really hoping that each type of ship within a class would have subtle differences as well. Nothing major mind you but perhaps a couple of points of turn in exchange for a few crew members or something like that.
Not a major disappointment but certainly a missed opportunity to allow captains to customize their ship even further.