Hi all bonus damage is based off of the base damage of each weapon.
Skills like Starship Weapons Training add .5% per point so if you maxed it out at 99 it would add 49.5% of the base damage.
Accolade adds 2%,
Mk level adds about 10% per each a MK XII will add 120%
Rarity adds 2.5% per level so ultra rare adds 10%
Each Dmg mod adds 5%
Consoles add what they say do. So a VR MK XII will add 30%
After you add up all the bonuses you have base + (base * bonus)
Base damage are
Dual cannons 87.05
Beam array 100
Beam bank 130
Dual heavy cannons 174.1
After you have that number you take your power level minus 50, times .02.
I do not know how attack patterns work sorry I never looked into it.